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Technical / Disperse Dyes Technical Reference


1.General

The pattern card contains recommendations on exhaust and continuous dyeing of polyester (PES) fibers with  disperse dyes;1. General Series2. Micro Fabric Dyeing ACE Series and High Washing Fastness HXF Series 3. Disperse HRD Series for Rapid Dyeing4. Disperse CC Series for Rapid Dyeing5. Disperse DTS Series6. Disperse Printing Series7. Disperse High Washing Fastness HXF Series8. Disperse High Light Fastness HLF Series9. Disperse Eco-friendly EHB Series10. Meet the requirements of the OEKO-Tex Black ItemsFUCAI offers disperse dyes for all application on polyester. This pattern card provides recommendations on exhaust, continuous and printing dyeing of PES with disperse dyes. The dyes are used in woven, knitted and yarn dyeing for PES fibers.The pattern card provides beneficial information on detailed dyeing processes and technical detailed information of dyes.All of the dyes are exhibited as self-shades and its combinations. Fastness data and application properties are presented comparatively in the pattern card.


2.Main Characteristic and Properties of Disperse Dyes

FUCAI developed a wide range of disperse dyes to fulfill demands of customers by environmental sensibility. By choosing suitable pre-treatment, dyeing method and after treatment process, disperse dyes present effective and reliable dyeing process and fastness levels for polyester fibers. 
 General SeriesExcellent dispersion propertyExcellent compatibility & reproducibilityGood fastnessWild chromatogram
Micro Fabric Dyeing ACE Series and High Washing Fastness HXF SeriesACE series can be applied in pale shade. This series has good light fastness and good leveling.HXF series is an economical set of high water fastness dyes.Excellent dyeing propertyExcellent stability in dying processExcellent water fastnessExcellent heat resistant migrationLow cross-stainingHigh build-up and good levelingWidely used in blended fabric dyeing
Disperse HRD Series for Rapid DyeingRapid, perfect diffusionShort fixation timeSuperb compatibility in combination shadesHigher operational reliability and good fastnessOmission of reduction clearing process
Disperse CC Series for Rapid DyeingRapid, perfect diffusionShort fixation timeSuperb compatibility in combination shadesHigher operational reliability and good fastness
Disperse DTS SeriesHigh strengthHigh build upBetter for deep shadesSuperb compatibility in combination shadesHigher operational reliability and good fastness
Disperse Printing SeriesHigh sublimation propertyExcellent dispersion propertyHigh built-up even as having very deep strengthMeeting fashion market requirements
Disperse High Washing Fastness HXF SeriesExcellent dyeing propertyExcellent wash-off property as alkali washable disperse dyes and superb washing fastnessExcellent heat resistant migrationLow cross-staining and wide application in various blended fabrics
Disperse High Light Fastness HLF SeriesSpecial for outdoor and automotive dyeingFulfills the market needs for high light fastnessExcellent build-up on regular and microfiber PESAttractive brilliant shades covering wide shade gamut
Disperse Eco-friendly EHB SeriesMeet the OEKO-Tex standard for prohibited aromatic amine, carcinogenic dyes, allergenic Dyes, extractable heavy metal,   chlorinated phenols, Chlorinated Benzenes and Benzyl chloride.Wild chromatogramGood build up and levelingExcellent  ReproducibilityWide application scope
Meet the requirements of the OeKo-Tex Black Items Meet the OEKO-Tex standard for prohibited aromatic amine, carcinogenic dyes, allergenic Dyes, extractable heavy metal,   chlorinated phenols,Chlorinated Benzenes and Benzyl chloride.Black of different shades, which meets different customers' requirement.Wild chromatogramGood build up and levelingExcellent  Reproducibility 
  

3. Application

Hangzhou Fucai Chem Co.,Ltd developed a wide range of disperse dyes to fulfill demands of customers by environmental sensibility.Those dyes are used in woven, knitted and yarn dyeing for PES fibers. By choosing suitable pre-treatment, dyeing method and after treatment process, disperse dyes present effective and reliable dyeing process and fastness levels for polyester fibers.   4. Disperse DyesBecause of the high crystallization rate, polyester fibers have less amorphous parts which allow the dyestuff diffusion to the fiber. And also PES fibers have hydrophobic molecule structure, thus the fibers only could be dye with disperse dyes.Disperse dyes are traditionally non-ionic dyes with very low solubility. So disperse dyes exhibit comparatively better sustainability for hydrophobic fibers, such as polyester, nylon and acetate. The fiber density of PET is very high. So disperse dyes should be as fine as possible(low molecular weight that within the range of 400-600). Meanwhile, disperse dyes must be stable under  different dyeing conditions, PH and temperature.

5. Classification of disperse dyes

According to the results of several tests which can be performed on the dyes, disperse dyes has been classified by the Disperse Dye Committee of the Society of Dyers and Colorists. Small dye molecules with low polarity,also known as low energy disperse dyes, are of good leveling and have high dyeing rates. However the heat resistance of low energy disperse dyes is very poor. High polar, high molecular weight dyes(S type and SE type) have good heat and sublimation fastness. However, the dyes exhibit low dyeing rates and poor migration during the dyeing process. 

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6. Disperse Dyeing

Disperse dyes are capable of  penetrating into the hydrophobic polyester fibers. Due to the poor solubility of dyes, dispersing agent is added to dye bath to maintain the dispersion stability especially in HT dyeing.A dispersing agent which has dual characteristic is added to the water then it forms micelles with dye molecule. The hydrophobic tail of the agent insides the micelles, the dyes are relatively turned into the soluble form and carried to the fiber. As micelles empty their dye, they can return initial form and dissolve more dye from the solid phase.Dyeing mechanism;

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7. Dyeing parameters

The adsorption and diffusion of disperse dyes on PES fibers are greatly influenced by temperature. The mobility of polymer chains in the amorphous regions of the fiber increases with temperature.The temperature is selected considering the substrate type, dyeing equipment/method and desired shade depth to obtain the best results. In exhaust dyeing, dyeing rate and migration rate of dyes increased with temperature rising.
SubstrateMethodT°C
PES PES/CellCarrier95-120°C
HT130-135°C
Thermosol210-220°C---30-60 sec
PES/ELMicrofiberHT120-130°C
Thermosol210-220°C-- 30-60 sec
    

(1). Dyeing of 100% Polyester

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ADisperse dyesX %
BAuxiliary1-2g/L
pH: 4-5
CCaustic (NaOH 38°Be)4 g/L
Sodium hydrosulfite2 g/L
Cleaning agent0.5-1 g/L
70-80°C,20min


 


Washing: 

*Washing in warm water for 10 mins at 70°C, after that cold water washing. Then drop.Neutralize:*Under PH: 6-6.5, neutralize with acetic acid at 50°C for 5 min. Later washing for 10 min, then drop. Without reduction cleaning; A + B + washingIf reduction cleaning desired; A + B + C + washing + neutralize treatment  

(2). Dyeing of PES/EL blends

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BAuxiliary1-2 g/L
pH: 4-5 
CCaustic (NaOH 38°Be)4 g/L
Sodium hydrosulfite2 g/L
Cleaning agent0.5-1 g/L
70-80°C,20min




  

Washing:Washing in warm water for 10 mins at 70°C, after that cold water washing. Then drop.Neutralize:Under PH: 6-6.5, neutralize with acetic acid at 50°C for 5 min. Later washing for 10 min, then drop. * Without reduction cleaning; A + B + washing*A + B + C + If reduction cleaning desired; A + B + C + washing + neut  

(3). Rapid dyeing method

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 Washing:Washing in warm water for 10 min at 70°C, after that cold water washing. Then drop.Neutralize:Under PH: 6-6.5, neutralize with acetic acid at 50°C for 5 min. Later washing for 10 min, then drop.



 *Without reduction cleaning; A + B + washing *If reduction cleaning desired; A + B + C + washing + neutralize treatmen 
AHRD (NN) Disperse dyesX%
BAuxiliary1 -2g/L
pH: 4-5 
CCaustic (NaOH 38°Be)4 g/L
Sodium hydrosulfite2 g/L
Cleaning agent0.5-1g/L
70-80°C,20min
  *Without reduction cleaning; A + B + washing*If reduction cleaning desired; A + B + C + washing + neutralize tre  

(4). Dyeing PES/CELL blends

一One Bath Dyeing MethodPES/CELL fabrics can be dyed in a single batch but it is important to select suitable dyes and auxiliaries to guarantee dye durability and process safety especially in high temperature. The auxiliaries and dyes shouldn't affect each other negatively.

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ECleaning agent0.5-1 g/L

70°C,20 min 
FNeutralize:
Acetic acid
50°C,pH 5.5, 20min
 
ADisperse dyesX%

Direct cellulose dyesy
BAuxiliary1 g/L
pH: 4-5 
CSalt
DSoda Ash(Na2CO3), pH: 10-10.5
   Two Bath Dyeing MethodAbove is the introduction of PES dyeing, please refer to reactive and direct dyes pattern cards for CV dyeing.

(5). Dyeing of acetate fibers

Acetate fibers are hydrophobic man-made fibers and they have no ionic groups like polyester. So they are suitable for disperse dyeing and usually the dyeing rate is very high. 

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   Washing:Washing in warm water for 10 mins at 70°C, after that cold water washing. Then drop.Neutralize:Under PH: 6-6.5, neutralize with acetic acid at 50°C for 5 min. Later washing for 10 min, then drop. 
ADisperse dyesX%
BLaugal RAL1 g/lt
Laucid MPT
pH: 4.5 
CCaustic (NaOH 38°Be)4 g/L
Sodium hydrosulfite  2 g/L
Cleaning agent0.5-1 g/L
70-80°C,20min
  

6). Dyeing with Carrier

A carrier is an organic compound dissolved or emulsified in the dye bath. It is a kind of chemical that can significantly improve the dyeing rate of disperse dyes.Carrier dyeing is carried out under atmosphere pressure by an addition of carrier to the dyeing liquor. Methylnaphthalene or chlorobenzene type carrier is used generally, which is added in concentration of 0.5-2 g/L to the dyeing liquor.  Other conditions are the same as those for high temperature dyeing.


Washing:Washing in warm water for 10 mins at 70°C, after that cold water washing. Then drop.Neutralize:Under PH: 6-6.5, neutralize with acetic acid at 50°C for 5 min. Later washing for 10 min, then drop.  
ADisperse dyesX%
BAuxiliary1 g/L
Carrier0.5-2 g/L
pH: 4.5 
CCaustic (NaOH 38°Be)4 g/lt
Sodium hydrosulfite2 g/lt
Cleaning agent1 g/lt
70-80°C,20min
 * Without reduction cleaning; A + B + washing*If reduction cleaning desired; A + B + C + washing + neutralize treatment  In carrier dyeing, in some cases the troubles such as carrier spots or levelness taken from the instability of emulsifier in the carrier under high temperature. The other debating opinion is that because a carrier accelerates the dyeing mechanism and it may cause levelness problems. So it is necessary to select the carrier carefully so as to prevent the troubles.    

(7). Continuous Dyeing

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7.1Dyeing PES and PES/CELL Blends; Pad-thermosol dyeing

Thermosol dyeing is a continuous dyeing method which is applied mainly for the polyester or polyester/cellulose blended material.  

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ADisperse dyesX g/L
BMigration inhibiter20 g/L
Dispersing agent1g/l
pH: 4.5-5
Caustic (NaOH 38°Be)3g/lt
Sodium hydrosulfite3g/lt
70-80°C,20 min
 *In pre-dry residual moisture approx. 30%*Washing process for reduction cleaning;Adding dye, migration inhibiter(20 g/L) and some wetting agent to the padding liquor.Dyeing at room temperature by 1 dip 1 nip dyeing method. The pick- up is about 50-70%. Then drying at 130°C. After padding and intermediate drying, thermosol fixation is carried out by dry heating for 1-2 min at 180-220°C depending on the form of the material and type of the disperse dyes.FUCAI disperse dyes are classified as the molecular energy as S level (higher molecular energy), SE level (medium molecular energy) and E level (lower molecular energy).

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180-190°C× 1-2 min.

vn88 vn88linkvn88Liên kết đăng nhập  SE Level:

190-200°C× 1-2 min.

vn88 vn88linkvn88Liên kết đăng nhậpS Level:

200-220°C× 1-2 min.
  


  Thermosol dyeing fixation temperature depends on the molecular energy levels of dyestuff, so the energy levels must be taken into consideration while choosing dyeing process . Washing process should include reduction cleaning process to obtain high fastness values. While dyeing PES/CELL fibers, please refer to the cellulosic dyes pattern card to dye cellulose component separately. Notes on the pattern section:
Energy levels        Performance
E=low
= suitable
SE=medium
= unsuitable
S=high
Chemical class
Ma= mono azo
Antq= antraquinone
Qn= quinoline
Cum= coumarin
 Fastness properties are tested in accordance with SN-ISO 105 and international standards. Where multi-fiber strip is specified as adjacent fabric, such as in wash test ISO C03, adjacent fabric not mentioned in the table attained rating for 5 for staining. Light fastness is tested at the 1/1, 2/1 and 1/3 standard depth (SD).


Key to fastness table

ISO 105 C03:1989Washing fastness
AATCC 11A 49°CAmerican Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, Washing fastness
ISO 105 X11:1994Hot pressing fastness
ISO 105 X12:1994Rubbing fastness
ISO 105 E04:1994  Perspiration fastness
ISO 105 B02:1994Light fastness (Xenon arc fading lamp)
ISO 105 P01:1993   Sublimation fastness
ISO 105 E03:1994  Swimming pool fastness (fastness to chlorinated water)
CH=shade change
ACE= staining on acetate
CO= staining on cotton
PA= 66staining on polyamide 66
PES= staining on polyester
AES= staining on polyamide
WO= staining on wool


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